Is Urban Revitalization Without Gentrification Possible?
Cities are the place to be these days, which means big changes for the historic communities that have populated urban cores. While much of the urban renewal experiments of the 1940s through the 1960s have been deemed disasters, word is still out on the new wave of "urban revitalization" that began in the 1990s and continues through to today in most of America's cities. The supporters of revitalization say rising tides lifts all boats. As wealth has come back to cities, everyone benefits. But critics of revitalization simply call it gentrification, and, as one speaker at the EcoDistricts Summit in Washington, D.C. said, "gentrification is a crime." Furthermore, new discussions of turning existing urban neighborhoods into "ecodistricts" may just be gentrification in a green dress. How can cities encourage growth but also provide a sense of continuity? How can over-taxed city planning departments accommodate the forces of change while also respecting local communities and cultures?
According to Charles Hostovsky, a professor of urban planning at Catholic University in Washington, D.C., the speed of revitalization in D.C. has been extraordinarily rapid. Every neighborhood has cranes, signifying new development. There has been a corresponding shift in the demographics of the city. In 1970, the city was 77 percent African American. Today, it's just 49 percent African American. "The number of people who have been displaced equals a small town." Indeed: in the past decade, approximately, 50,000 young, white Millennials have moved into the city while 35,000 African Americans have left.
Reyna Alorro, who works for the DC Office of the Deputy Mayor for Planning, said revitalization has even spread east of the Anacostia River, perhaps the last hold out to gentrification. There, the city is supporting the redevelopment of Barry Farm, 25 acres of public housing, into a new mixed-income, mixed-use development that they hope will be an example of equitable revitalization. As HUD Hope IV funds have diminished since 2005, the District has started its own program of revamping public housing. "We want to target the areas with blight, crime, high unemployment and turn them into mixed income communities." The theory is that reducing the concentration of the poor in communities, and relieving their isolation, will improve their conditions.
Barry Farm, a historic African American community founded by freed slaves, currently has some 400 units, with 1,200 people. The population of the housing development is 93 percent single mothers; some 86 percent are unemployed. "This is not a friendly, welcoming site." There is only one over-priced corner store, with a bullet-proof glass wall separating the store owners from customers.
The $550 million redevelopment plan, said Kelly Smyser, DC Housing Authority, will create 1,400 public and affordable apartments at the same site. New apartments will face each other, creating open public thoroughfares that enable "eyes on the street." There will also be a recreation center, with an indoor pool, basketball courts, and computer labs, as well as a charter school. The nearby Anacostia Metro station will get a full upgrade, with improved access to the station from the development. "We want to bring opportunity to residents. We will make the connection to Metro easier and safer."
The District government calls this project "revitalization without gentrification," as all current residents will be allowed to come back to the new development. "There will be zero displacement." The city also promises it will undertake a program of "build first, before demolition." To increase the diversity of the development, some 300 of the new units will be affordable housing, rentals, or for sale. The city also wants to encourage small businesses to locate in Barry Farms. They are creating "live-work" sites that will enable people to live above their stores. "We need to get rid of the bullet proof glass."
The neighborhood is rightly concerned about how they can preserve the best of the local culture with all the change. One example of this is the Goodman League, a basketball tournament that happens in the neighborhood every year. "People have a good time, barbequing, sitting in lawn chairs. There are no beefs on the court." The basketball courts where this happen will remain untouched.
While Smyser was convinced this upgrade will benefit the community, one conference attendee seemed equally as convinced that with the District's multimillion dollar investment, the city government will simply be opening the neighborhood to opportunistic developers and further gentrification. Word is still out on how this urban redevelopment story will play out.
Hazel Edwards, a professor of planning at Catholic University, outlined some examples of successful revitalization without gentrification in other parts of the U.S. She pointed to Melrose Commons in South Bronx, where a group of local residents banded together in the early 1990s into a group called Nos Quedamos (We Stay) and fought back New York City government's imposed urban renewal plan. With the help of an altruistic architect, Nos Quedamos forged their own urban design that respected the community's unique cultural heritage. The plan and design resulted in 2,000 units of affordable housing. "There was no displacement in the community."
In Portland, Oregon, Edwards told us about a project called Cully Main Street plan, which helped preserve one the most diverse neighborhoods in Portland, with some 40-50 percent people of color. They devised a plan to equitably bring in commercial activity to their main street while accommodating an influx of new white homeowners and preserving the neighborhood diversity.
Edwards said the key to revitalization without gentrification is "bringing residents and the community to the table often and at the beginning." This kind of public planning process requires a great investment of time and resources by city governments, but without this investment, the only result may be inequitable, developer-led urban revitalization. "Cities have to form diverse, inclusive partnerships, foster openness, and collaborate on goals and outcomes."
Quoting the urban leader and author, Kaid Benfield, she said, "we have to work towards a balanced solution," but also track our progress to see whether we are living up to our goals.